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PREHISTORY BECOMES HISTORY... see also Evolution Before Darwin
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Africa- Toros-Menalla 6,800,000 years ago possible partial bipedality
 
  Sahelanthropus tschadensis
Morphology of basicranium suggests a more upright posture than chimps
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Africa- Western Margin Localities (Saitune Dora VP 1 and 2, Alayla VP-2, Asa Koma, Adu Dora, Digiba Dora) 5,700,000 years ago loss of functional premolar-molar honing facet
 
  Ardipithecus kadabba
Loss of functional canine sharpening apparatus implies diminished role of agonistic behaviors. Contemporaneity with evolution of obligate bipedality suggests the two are associated
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Africa- Aramis 4,400,000 years ago facultative bipedality, canines often worn flat
 
  Ardipithecus ramidus
Morphology of postcranial skeleton clearly adapted for biomechanically effective bipedal locomotion while many features with arboreal cunctionality are retained
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Africa- Laetoli 3,680,000 years ago obligate bipedality
 
  Australopithecus afarensis
Footprints of multiple individuals in fossilized volcanic ash show complete bipedality
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Africa- Gona 2,560,000 years ago cut marks on animal bone; in situ stone tools
 
 
Ounda Gona/Kada Gona: numerous in-situ cores and flakes, some with retouch. Cut Marks
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Africa- Hata Member 2,475,000 years ago cut-marks on animal bone
 
  Austalopithecus garhi
Cut marks on bones indicate animal butchery; Cut marks also at Gona
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Africa 2,000,000 years ago brain size about 550cc
 
  late Australopithecus/earliest Homo

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Republic of Georgia- Dmanisi 1,850,000 years ago Eurasian expansion of hominids
 
  early Homo erectus
Homo expands into subtropical and warm temperate Eurasia
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Africa 1,800,000 years ago right handedness
 
  Homo erectus
About 85% of humans are right handed. Chimps prefer a hand in nut cracking, but there is no pattern as to which side. Flakes from Koobi Fora suggest that Homo habilis and early Homo erectus preferentially utilized right-handed flaking techniques. See http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248409001304
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Southern Africa- Vaal River 1,700,000 years ago Acheulean-like tools
 
  early Homo erectus
Symmetrical tools start to appear in the archaeological record at sites like Vaal River, Kokiselei, Konso, and Ain Hanech
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Southern Africa- Swartkrans 1,500,000 years ago bone tools
 
  early Homo erectus?

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Africa- Konso 1,400,000 years ago toothpick use
 
  Homo erectus
Abrasions between teeth indicate use of toothpick to clean interproximally.
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Africa- Gadeb 1,075,000 years ago controversial evidence for fire
 
  Homo erectus?
Other controversial sites: Chesowanja
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Southern Africa- Wonderwerk Cave 1,000,000 years ago controlled used of fire
 
  Homo erectus
The earliest evidence for fire is controversial. There are numerous sites that have claimed evidence for early fire, but naturally occuring fires are difficult to discriminate unless the contextual evidence is exceptional.
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Africa- Daka Member 1,000,000 years ago Acheulean technology widespread in Africa.
 
  Homo erectus
Acheulean tools dominant in many African assemblages.
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Old World tropics and subtropics 1,000,000 years ago brain size about 1000cc
 
  Homo erectus

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Israel- Evron Quarry 890,000 years ago quarrying for stone tool material
 
  Homo erectus

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Africa- Bodo, Ethiopia 550,000 years ago cutmarks on hominid cranium
 
  Homo rhodesiensis

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Eurasia 500,000 years ago Acheulean widespread in Eurasia
 
  Homo heidelbergensis
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007404; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618209004467
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Africa 500,000 years ago brain size about 1300cc in Africa
 
  Homo rhodesiensis

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Africa- Kapthurin 500,000 years ago primitive blade-like flakes
 
  Homo rhodesiensis
Similar aged blade-like flakes found at Kathu Pan 1, South Africa.
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Europe- Boxgrove, England 500,000 years ago hunting large mammals With Spears
 
  Homo heidelbergensis

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Southern Africa- Vaal River 450,000 years ago Levallois-like core production in Africa
 
  Homo rhodesiensis

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Europe- Beeches Pit, England 425,000 years ago undisputed evidence for fire
 
  Homo heidelbergensis

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Europe- Clacton (England), Lehringen, and Schoningen (both in Germany) 400,000 years ago wooden hunting spears
 
  Homo heidelbergensis
Wooden spears
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Africa- Twin Rivers 350,000 years ago Pigment processing
 
  Homo rhodesiensis
Ochre used as pigment. Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia Twin Rivers
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Eurasia 300,000 years ago Levallois/prepared core technology in Eurasia
 
  Homo heidelbergensis

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Europe- Upper Valdarno Basin, Italy 200,000 years ago tar used as adhesive
 
  Homo heidelbergensis
Birch bark tar found on two flakes
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Africa- Sai Island, northern Sudan 200,000 years ago Sangoan archaeological tradition in Africa
 
  Homo rhodesiensis
Evidence for hafting
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Israel- Qesem Cave 200,000 years ago Blades
 
  Homo

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Africa- Kalambo Falls 182,000 years ago Woodworking
 
  Homo sapiens?
Zambia, Africa
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Africa- Sai Island, Sudan 180,000 years ago grinding stones
 
  Homo sapiens?
The Early to Middle Stone Age Transition and the Emergence of Modern Human Behaviour at site 8-B-11, Sai Island, Sudan
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Africa- Herto Member 160,000 years ago mortuary activity
 
  Homo sapiens
Cut marks, abrasions, and polish indicate extensive non-destructive handling and processing of human remains
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Mediterranean- Plakias, Crete 130,000 years ago sea travel
 
  Homo sapiens?
Evidence of seafaring based on presence of flake tools on Crete
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Israel- Qafzeh 100,000 years ago Homo sapiens in levant
 
  Homo sapiens
Also found at Skhul at this time
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Israel- Qafzeh 100,000 years ago intentional burial
 
  Homo sapiens

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Israel- Skhul 98,000 years ago beads
 
  Homo sapiens
Israel
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Africa- Grotte des Pigeons, Taforalt, Morocco 80,000 years ago long distance transport/trade
 
  Homo sapiens
82,000-year-old shell beads from inland (50 km from coast) North Africa imply long-distance trade
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Africa- Katanda, Democratic Republic of Congo 80,000 years ago harpoon
 
  Homo sapiens

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Southern Africa-Blombos Cave 75,000 years ago stone engraved with geometric patterns
 
  Homo sapiens

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Southern Africa- Sibudu Cave 75,000 years ago bedding/medicinal plants
 
  Homo sapiens

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Southern Africa- Blombos Cave 75,000 years ago pressure flaking
 
  Homo sapiens

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Southern Africa- Sibudu Cave 70,000 years ago compound adhesives
 
  Homo sapiens
Africa. Adhesives made from composites of materials used to mount flakes
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Southern Africa- Sibudu Cave 70,000 years ago MSA points common in Africa
 
  Homo sapiens
MSA points were hafted and variable in size and raw material
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Africa 64,000 years ago indication of bow and arrow use in Africa
 
  Homo sapiens

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Africa 62,000 years ago microliths in Africa
 
  Homo sapiens
Jacobs, Z., Roberts, R., Galbraith, R., Deacon, H., Grün, R., Mackay, A., Mitchell, P., Vogelsang, R. and Wadley, L. 2008. Ages for Middle Stone Age innovations in southern Africa: implications for modern human behavior and dispersal. Science , 322: 733?5.
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Africa 50,000 years ago projectile points in Africa
 
  Homo sapiens

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Africa- Numerous sites 50,000 years ago LSA
 
  Homo sapiens
Prismatic blade cores common in Africa
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Iraq- Shanidar 49,000 years ago Neanderthals in Levant
 
  Homo neanderthalensis
Also found at Tabun and Kebara at this time
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Europe- Marillac, France 45,000 years ago Neanderthal diet carnivorous
 
  Homo neanderthalensis
see also http://www.pnas.org/content/97/13/7663.full
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Europe- Fumane 44,000 years ago use of feathers by neanderthals
 
  Homo neanderthalensis

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Europe 43,000 years ago Ochre use by Neanderthals
 
  Homo neanderthalensis
There is trace evidence for ochre use among neanderthals, indications of Neanderthal symbolic behavior are rare and controversial. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g2704p69x31585l3/fulltext.html
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Europe- Kent's Cavern in south Devon 43,000 years ago earliest Homo sapiens in northern Eurasia
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe 40,000 years ago hematite mined for use as pigment
 
  Homo sapiens

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Australia- Several localities 40,000 years ago Earliest human remains in Australia
 
  Homo sapiens
Several localities in Australia predate 40,000 years by a few thiousand years
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Europe- Hohle Fels Cave in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany 40,000 years ago sculpture/figurative art
 
  Homo sapiens

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Eurasia 40,000 years ago projectile points in Eurasia
 
  Homo sapiens

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Southern Africa- Border Cave 37,000 years ago counting stick-mathematical artifact
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe- Hohle Fels Cave 35,000 years ago musical instruments
 
  Homo sapiens

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Republic of Georgia- Dzudzuana Cave 32,000 years ago clothing (flaxen)
 
  Homo sapiens

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Eurasia 30,000 years ago microliths in Eurasia
 
  Homo sapiens

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Northern Eurasia 30,000 years ago depigmentation of northern Eurasian populations
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe- Chauvet Cave 30,000 years ago paintings
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe- Dolni Vistonice 29,000 years ago ceramic figurine
 
  Homo sapiens
ceramic venus figurine
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China- Xiaogushan, Liaoning Province, China 27,000 years ago sewing/needles
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe- Predmosti 26,000 years ago dog burials
 
  Homo sapiens
Predmosti is located in the Moravian region of what is today the Czech Republic. Dog burials are early, predating end of last ice age. Domestication is thought to have occurred between 17-15 thousand years ago (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069110002982)
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Israel- Ohalo II 23,000 years ago signs of increasing sedentism in southern Eurasia
 
  Homo sapiens
huts and other indications of population centers in Fertile Crescent area
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Europe 20,000 years ago Solutrean
 
  Homo sapiens
Clovis-like stone technologies in Europe persits until after the end of the ice age (18,000 years ago)
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China- Jomon culture, Lake Anenuma, Honshu, Japan 18,000 years ago pottery in Japan
 
  Homo sapiens
Other very early pottery occurs in China. It is not found in the Fertile Crescent until about 8
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Europe 17,500 years ago earliest atlatl
 
  Homo sapiens
Associated with Solutrean (Clovis-like) technology
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North America- Buttermilk Creek Complex, Texas 15,500 years ago first Clovis site in Americas
 
  Homo sapiens
Paleolithic settlement along the shores of Buttermilk Creek in present day Salado, Texas dated to approximately 15,500 years old. If confirmed, the site represents evidence of human settlement in the Americas that pre-dates Clovis culture.
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Eastern Eurasia 15,500 years ago bottle gourd 'domestication'
 
  Homo sapiens
Date inferred from Asia origin and presence in the New World
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Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria- Fertile Crescent 11,500 years ago reliance on domesticated plants
 
  Homo sapiens
reliance on domestic versions of grains (wheat, rye) in fertile crescent
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Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria- Fertile Crescent 11,500 years ago domestication of sheep, then goats, pigs, and cattle
 
  Homo sapiens

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Europe 7,300 years ago Vin%C4%8Da_symbols
 
  Homo sapiens
Proto-wrting symbols
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China 6,000 years ago Jiahu symbols,
 
  Homo sapiens
Proto-wrting symbols
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info 4614 years ago -2600(BC/AD) Akkadian empire Akkaidians use cuneiform as written language, and lost wax methods to cast lead. The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service.
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info 4064 years ago -2050(BC/AD) The Code of Ur-Nammu Oldest known written law code from Kingdom of Ur
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info 3014 years ago -1000(BC/AD) Nichoria bone Did Bronze Age Greeks know about fossils?
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info 2614 years ago -600(BC/AD) Phoenicians Merchant captains sailing along north Africa note that sun is always to the south when going east-west.
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info 2613 years ago -599(BC/AD) Thales of Miletus Pre-socratic philosopher who postulates that earthquakes and lightning have natural causes. Promotes logos over mythos. Trains Pythagoras.
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info 2564 years ago -550(BC/AD) Pythagoras Purported to have conceived of a shperical Earth, although it was a controversial claim for some time.
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info 2399 years ago -385(BC/AD) Plato Founds the Academy
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info 2354 years ago -340(BC/AD) Aristotle Introduces ideas of classification of animals, genus and species, and embryology
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info 2314 years ago -300(BC/AD) Epicurus Early athiesm/skepticism. Purported to have questioned the existence of god: Epicurean Paradox: "Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?"
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info 2284 years ago -270(BC/AD) Aristarchus of Samos Early Heliocentric theory (~270 BC)
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info 2064 years ago -50(BC/AD) Titus Lucretius And in the ages after monsters died, Perforce there perished many a stock, unable By propagation to forge a progeny. For whatsoever creatures thou beholdest Breathing the breath of life, the same have been Even from their earliest age preserved alive By cunning, or by valour, or at least By speed of foot or wing. And many a stock Remaineth yet, because of use to man, And so committed to man's guardianship. Valour hath saved alive fierce lion-breeds And many another terrorizing race, Cunning the foxes, flight the antlered stags.
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info 2022 years ago -8(BC/AD) Papermaking First papermaking from wood in China. Manufactured in Italy by 1220.
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info 1824 years ago 190(BC/AD) Sextus Empiricus Attributes the "Epicurean paradox" to Epicurus (which may or may not be true): "Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God?
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info 1764 years ago 250(BC/AD) Diogenes Laertius ""[ Pythagoras ] was the first [Greek] who called the earth round; though Theophrastus attributes this to Parmenides, and Zeno to Hesiod." -Diogenes Laertius
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info 1606 years ago 408(BC/AD) St. Augustine Writes De Genesi ad literam, which suggests that when the Bible is at odds with empirical observations that the spiritual meaning of the Bible should not be questioned because the Bible only teaches things necessary for salvation. This leaves the door open for understanding nature outside the context of the Bible. Augustine took the view that the Biblical text should not be interpreted literally if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason. He did not see this as a conflict.
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info 1556 years ago 458(BC/AD) Lokavibhâga Book that first uses decimal system in India.
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info 1515 years ago 499(BC/AD) Aryabhata In Aryabhatiya and Aryabhata Siddhanta, worked out an accurate heliocentric model of gravitation, including elliptical orbits, the circumference of the earth, and the longitudes of planets around the Sun.
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info 1414 years ago 600(BC/AD) Chinese inventors (漢朝) Wood block printing invented in China. See Reinhardt, A., Shiao, L. A., Barlow, T. E., & Field, A. (2005). Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876-1937 (review). Technology and Culture, 46(2), 411-413.
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info 1401 years ago 613(BC/AD) Muhammed Muhammed begins preaching in his hometown, Mecca
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info 1392 years ago 622(BC/AD) Muhammed "Pilgrims from Yathrib visiting Mecca (a holy city before the existence of Islam) are favorably impressed by Muhammad and invite him to return with them to their town. The town has no unifying governmental authority. Muhammad is fifty-two and becomes recognized in Yathrib as a religious leader and someone to go to for settling disputes."
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info 1391 years ago 623(BC/AD) Muhammed "Yathrib has a large Jewish community, and its leaders reject Muhammad's claim to be a leader of Judaism. Muhammad and his followers stop bowing toward Jerusalem and begin bowing toward Mecca, and Muhammad abandons Saturday as the Sabbath and makes Friday his special day of the week."
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info 1324 years ago 690(BC/AD) Empress Wu Zetian Buddhism comes to China with Wu Zetian.
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info 1264 years ago 750(BC/AD) Teotihuacan Teotihuacan is destroyed.
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info 1264 years ago 750(BC/AD) Arab empire Arabian mathematicians begin using numbers that originated in India. They are an advance over the Roman numerals that Muslims will pass to Europeans.
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info 1201 years ago 813(BC/AD) Abdallah al-Mamun The new Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, son of al Rashid, Abdallah al-Mamun, sends people to Constantinople's empire to collect scientific works by ancient Greeks.
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info 1014 years ago 1000(BC/AD) Bi Sheng (毕升) Moveable type printing press invented in China.
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info 987 years ago 1027(BC/AD) Avicenna (Abū Alī Sīnā) Outlined the principle of superposition while discussing the origins of mountains in The Book of Healing ( Al-Shefa). Of mountains his writes "Either they are the effects of upheavals of the crust of the earth, such as might occur during a violent earthquake, or they are the effect of water, which, cutting itself a new route, has denuded the valleys, the strata being of different kinds, some soft, some hard... It would require a long period of time for all such changes to be accomplished, during which the mountains themselves might be somewhat diminished in size.."
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info 984 years ago 1030(BC/AD) Abu Rayhan Biruni Abu Rayhan Biruni Kitab fi Tahqiq ma li'l-Hind (Researches on India) Biruni publishes his 'research' on India, which has ethnographic, geological, astronomical, and evolutionary ideas very clearly presented. In it, among other things, Biruni discusses seashell fossils as evidence for geological change. In 1030, Biruni discussed the Indian heliocentric theories of Aryabhata, Brahmagupta and Varahamihira in his Indica. Biruni attempted to give a naturalistic explanation as to why the struggles described in the Mahabharata "had to take place." He explains it using natural processes that include biological ideas related to evolution, which has led several scholars to compare his ideas to Darwinism and natural selection.
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info 934 years ago 1080(BC/AD) Shen Kuo (沈括) Writes of the navigators magnetic-needle compass, discovered the concept of true north, improved the design of the sight tube. After observing the natural process of the inundation of silt and finding marine fossils in the Taihang Mountains (hundreds of miles from the Pacific Ocean), Shen Kuo devised a theory of land formation, or geomorphology. He also adopted a theory of gradual climate change in regions over time, after observing petrified bamboo found underground at Yan'an, Shaanxi province.
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info 864 years ago 1150(BC/AD) Renaissance of the 12th Century Universities are starting in Europe (University of Bologna (1088), University of Paris (teach. mid-11th century, recogn. 1150), University of Oxford (teach. 1096, recogn. 1167), University of Modena (1175), University of Palencia (1208), University of Cambridge (1209), University of Salamanca (1218), University of Montpellier (1220), University of Padua (1222), University of Toulouse (1229), University of Orleans (1235), University of Siena (1240) and University of Coimbra (1288)). Chinese and Islamic science are flourising, and waves of knowledge lap onto Europe from these sources as the Crusades, early translators, and trade contact bring a steady flow of knowledge back to Europe. Europe develops a taste for knowledge.
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info 789 years ago 1225(BC/AD) Michael Scot (Latin: Michael Scotus) Translates Aristotle, Avicenna, and many other works of Greek and Islamic secular scholarsip into Latin. Access to the texts was from Moorish Libraries in Toledo. The fire had not been extinguished!
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info 744 years ago 1270(BC/AD) Roger Bacon Franciscan friar. Writes Opus Majus. Sets tone for scientific epmiricism. Describes gunpowder.
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info 740 years ago 1274(BC/AD) Thomas Aquinas 1274 was the year of his death and the last year of work on his most famous work, Summa Theologiæ. Aquinas combines elements of Christian philosophy, Greek philosophy, Pagan philosophy, and Muslim theology into a 'Natural Theology,' the forerunner of Deism. Cites heavily from work of Augustine of Hippo.
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info 733 years ago 1281(BC/AD) China Chinese gunpowder used during the Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1281. Gunpowder traces its origns to the Song Dynasty (960-1127) and may have been used before this.
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info 719 years ago 1295(BC/AD) Marco Polo Returns to Venice from the East.
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info 689 years ago 1325(BC/AD) Mexica Tenochtitlan founded
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info 664 years ago 1350(BC/AD) Black Death Bubonic plague kills about 1/3 of Europe from 1349-1351.
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info 575 years ago 1439(BC/AD) Johann Gutenberg Movable type Printing press re-invented in Germany
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info 559 years ago 1455(BC/AD) numerous printing presses 180 Gutenberg Bibles printed. 48 of these remain today. In 1480 the Low German Bible appeared at Cologne. Ninety-eight distinct and full editions(with hundreds of printed volumes in each edition) appeared prior to 1500.
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info 525 years ago 1489(BC/AD) Leonardo Da Vinci Supported by a now powerful Medici familiy (the bankers of the Catholic church), Leonardo da Vinci begins creating a series of over 700 anatomical drawings. Although often relying on assumptions based on animal anatomy, da Vinci purportedly dissected dozens of cadavers to learn more about the inner workings of the human body. Then illegal, this was the first time cadevers were used to study the human body.
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info 525 years ago 1489(BC/AD) Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Medici cardinal ordained and now on deck for pope. Giovanni named cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica by Medici relative Pope Innocent VIII
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info 522 years ago 1492(BC/AD) Cristobal Colon (Christopher Columbus) European-American contact. The following 20 years saw the (Catholic) European 'discovery' of India, Brazil, Ethiopia, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean. The minds of learned Europeans expanded with newfound cultural and biological knowledge.
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info 520 years ago 1494(BC/AD) Medici family Medici family removed from Florentine power by collaboration of enemies; Machiavelli gets in volveed in Florentine politics that year. He will come to take a high position in the anti-Medici government.
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info 504 years ago 1510(BC/AD) Martin Luther Visits Rome
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info 503 years ago 1511(BC/AD) Holy League of 1511 Pope Julius (the warrior pope) enters the church into a military treaty with Ferdinand II, the Venetians, Henry VIII of England, and Holy Roman Emporer Maximilian 1 against France. The Catholic church had become a true military power under the papacy of Julius. Many authors point to Julius' tenure as the secularization of the papacy.
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info 502 years ago 1512(BC/AD) Niccolo Machiavelli Removed from power by the 'Holy League of 1511.' The 'Holy League' is suported strongly by a revitalized Medici, especially a Medici cardinal who would become pope the next year.
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info 501 years ago 1513(BC/AD) Pope Leo X (Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici) Pope Leo, the first Medici pope, is ordained. Machiavelli visits to congratulate (Florence is supportive of a Florentine pope), but he is tortured and sent back to Florence.
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info 501 years ago 1513(BC/AD) Niccolo Machiavelli Handwritten versions of Il Principe (the Prince), dedicated to the Medici Family, are distributed in Florence. This, inadvertently, is the first attempt to articulate the manipulative tendencies of the human mind relative to the altruistic virtue we present. Often decried, this work is a fundamental component of a secular understanding of the social contract of religion. Like in Hobbes over 100 years later, the social structure of religion and power is portrayed as purely secular.
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info 501 years ago 1513(BC/AD) Ponce de Leon Sites Florida
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info 500 years ago 1514(BC/AD) Nicolaus Copernicus Distributed Commentariolus to associates in Krakow, Poland. This short, hand-written text outlined a heliocentric hypothesis. In 1543 he publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium his monographic outline of his heliocentric theory based on planetary movements. Numerous volumes are published.
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info 497 years ago 1517(BC/AD) Martin Luther Stirs protests against Roman Catholic Church. Luther's theology challenged the authority of the papacy by holding that the Bible is the only infallible source of religious authority and that all baptized Christians under Jesus are a universal priesthood.
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info 495 years ago 1519(BC/AD) Hernan Cortes, Montezuma Cortes conquers Aztecs
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info 471 years ago 1543(BC/AD) Andreas Vesalius Wrote De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (On the fabric of the human body in seven books) based on the quasi-legal, yet increasingly common practice of human cadaver dissection. Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body,[3] so physicians such as Galen were unable to work on cadavers. Galen for example dissected the Barbary Macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans. Human dissections were also conducted by the Arabian physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091-1161) in al-Andalus,[11] followed by several other Arabian physicians: Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay in the 12th century, Abd-el-latif in Egypt circa 1200,[12] and Ibn al-Nafis in Syria circa 1242.
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info 463 years ago 1551(BC/AD) Conrad Gesner Writes Historiae animalium a volume that attempts to catalog all animals and explain their natural history. This work contains the first known illustrations of fossils.
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info 425 years ago 1589(BC/AD) William Lee The stocking frame, a mechanical knitting machine, one of the forerunners of the industrial revolution.
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info 414 years ago 1600(BC/AD) Giordano Bruno Burned at the stake by the Inquisition for heresy. Born 1548 as Filippo Bruno, Giordano Bruno was an Italian Catholic Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Bruno went beyond the Copernican model in identifying the sun as just one of an infinite number of stars, and he is the first man to have conceived of other stars as similar to our own Sun. He was burned at the stake by authorities in 1600 after the Roman Inquisition found him guilty of heresy.
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info 406 years ago 1608(BC/AD) Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Metius Refracting telescope invented in the Netherlands.
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info 404 years ago 1610(BC/AD) Galileo Galilei Galileo published an account of his high-tech telescope observations of the moons of Jupiter, using this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe against the dominant earth-centered Ptolemaic and Aristotelian theories.
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info 386 years ago 1628(BC/AD) William Harvey Writes De Motu Cordis (otherwise known as On the Motion of the Heart and Blood); Published in 1628 in the city of Frankfurt (host to an annual book fair that Harvey knew would allow immediate dispersion of his work), this 72 page book contains the matured account of the circulation of the blood. Opening with a simple but clear dedication to King Charles I, the quarto has 17 chapters which give a perfectly clear and connected account of the action of the heart and the consequent movement of the blood around the body in a circuit. Having only a mere lens at his disposal, Harvey was not able to reach the adequate images that were attained through such microscopes used by Leeuwenhoek; thus he had to resort to theory ? and not practical evidence ? in certain parts of his book.; William Harvey (1 April 1578 ? 3 June 1657) was an English physician who was the first person to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart. After his death "The William Harvey Hospital" was constructed in the town of Ashford, several miles from his birthplace of Folkestone.
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info 384 years ago 1630(BC/AD) René Descartes published Le Monde (The World, 1630) and L'Homme (Man, 1633)"Cartesian dualism", suggested that the body could be considered a machine entirely separate from the spiritual world. Quote "I think, therefore I am."
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info 363 years ago 1651(BC/AD) Thomas Hobbes A bitter civil war had just ended, and the Protestants took control of England. Social order had suffered during the war. Hobbes proposed in Leviathan that a secular social contract between centralized authority and obedient subjects was fundamental and that the religion promoted by central authority was the correct one, regardless of denomination. Hobbes lays out a series of natural laws, which he defines as "a precept, or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or takes away the means of preserving the same; and to omit that by which he thinks it may best be preserved."
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info 349 years ago 1665(BC/AD) Journal des Sçavans First scientific journal- Journal des Sçavans (later renamed Journal des savants)
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info 349 years ago 1665(BC/AD) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Second scientific journal (by 4 months!)- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
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info 345 years ago 1669(BC/AD) Steno, Nicolai (Niels Stensen) De Solido intra Solidum naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus. (Prodrome to a Dissertation concerning a Solid Naturally Enclosed within a Solid). 1669: Fossils represent animals once alive; principles of stratigraphy with superposition and original horizontality
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info 334 years ago 1680(BC/AD) Giovanni Alfonso Borelli Wrote De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, a major work of mechanical philosophy; Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (28 January 1608, Naples - 31 December 1679, Rome) was a Renaissance Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician. He contributed to the modern principle of scientific investigation by continuing Galileo's custom of testing hypotheses against observation. Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive studies of Jupiter's moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in microscopy, of the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in medicine and geology. During his career, he enjoyed the protection of Queen Christina of Sweden, which sheltered him from the attacks from the Italian authorities suffered by Galileo.
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info 328 years ago 1686(BC/AD) John Ray Defined concept of 'species' in first edition of classification of plants titled Historia Plantarum. Ray rejected the system of dichotomous division by which species were classified according to a pre-conceived, either/or type system, and instead classified plants according to similarities and differences that emerged from observation. Thus he advanced scientific empiricism against the deductive rationalism of the scholastics. He coined the term species.
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info 315 years ago 1699(BC/AD) Edward Tyson Book: Orang Outang, sive Homo Sylvestris, Or The Anatomy of a Pygmie Compared with that of a Monkey, and Ape, and a Man. Dissection of chimpanzee and detailed discussion of profound similarity to humans. Very early, if not the earliest, use of the missing link concept: "I take him to be wholly a Brute, tho' in the formation of the Body, and in the Sensitive or Brutal Soul, it may be, more resembling a Man, than any other Animal; so that in this Chain of the Creation, as an intermediate Link between an Ape and a Man, I would place our Pygmie."
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info 306 years ago 1708(BC/AD) Johann Jakob Scheuchzer Lake Constance skeleton found, Johann Jakob Scheuchzer described the fossil in 1726 in his Lithographia Helvetica as Homo diluvii testis (man who has witnessed the flood). Cuvier showed it to be a fossil salamander in 1812.
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info 302 years ago 1712(BC/AD) Thomas Newcomen Thomas Newcomen builds first commercially successful steam engine. It was able to keep deep coal mines clear of water, and the first significant power source other than wind and water.
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info 279 years ago 1735(BC/AD) Carl von Linnae (Carolus Linnaeus) Systema Naturae first edition (link is to the 12th edition)
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info 261 years ago 1753(BC/AD) Hans Sloan, the British Museum Relevant to Linneaus as exemplifying the trasition to the public of private natural hisotry collections: When Sloane retired in 1741, his library and cabinet of curiosities, which he took with him from Bloomsbury to his house in Chelsea, had grown to be of unique value. He had acquired the extensive natural history collections of William Courten, Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio, James Petiver, Nehemiah Grew, Leonard Plukenet, the Duchess of Beaufort, the rev. Adam Buddle, Paul Hermann, Franz Kiggelaer and Herman Boerhaave. On his death on 11 January 1753 he bequeathed his books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, flora, fauna, medals, coins, seals, cameos and other curiosities to the nation, on condition that parliament should pay to his executors Ł20,000, which was a good deal less than the value of the collection. The bequest was accepted on those terms by an act passed the same year, and the collection, together with George II's royal library, etc., was opened to the public at Bloomsbury as the British Museum in 1759. A significant proportion of this collection was later to become the foundation for the Natural History Museum. Among his other acts of munificence may be mentioned his gift to the Apothecaries' Company of the botanical or physic garden, which they had rented from the Chelsea estate since 1673.
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info 256 years ago 1758(BC/AD) Carl von Linnae (Carolus Linnaeus) Whales moved from Pisces to Mammalia in 12th edition of Systema Naturae as concept of homology begins to take shape.
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info 255 years ago 1759(BC/AD) Giovanni Arduino Names geological strata: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
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info 248 years ago 1766(BC/AD) Buffon Book: Nomenclature of the Apes. Compares humans and apes. Classifies all humans as one species and differentiates them from apes. Buffon suggested that species mightchange with environment. His books were burned in France for his suggestion that the earth was 75,000 years old.
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info 239 years ago 1775(BC/AD) Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Agrees with Buffon that all humans are the same species; diversity is a result of climate, diet, mode of life
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info 226 years ago 1788(BC/AD) James Hutton "no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end;" Uniformitarianism
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info 224 years ago 1790(BC/AD) John Frere Finds deeply buried handaxes from Hoxne, Suffolk, England associated with extinct animals in 1790. "...weapons of war, fabricated by a people who had not the use of metals... The situation in which these weapons were found may tempt us to refer them to a very remote period indeed, even beyond that of the present world..." letter published by the Society of Antiquaries -1800
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info 224 years ago 1790(BC/AD) Kant discusses evolution so many genera of animals share a certain common schema on which not only their bone structure but also the arrangement of the other parts seems to be based; the basic outline is admirably simple but yet was able to produce this great diversity of species, by shortening some parts and lengthening others, by the involution of some and the evolution of others. Despite all the variety among those forms, they seem to have been produced according to a common archetype, and this analogy among them reinforces our suspicion that they are actually akin; produced by a common original mother
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info 223 years ago 1791(BC/AD) William Smith Starts geological survey work in Sommerset England that would lead to his "Principle of Faunal Succession
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info 220 years ago 1794(BC/AD) James Hutton Proposes Natural Selection in Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge. "...if an organised body is not in the situation and circumstances best adapted to its sustenance and propagation, then, in conceiving an indefinite variety among the individuals of that species, we must be assured, that, on the one hand, those which depart most from the best adapted constitution, will be the most liable to perish, while, on the other hand, those organised bodies, which most approach to the best constitution for the present circumstances, will be best adapted to continue, in preserving themselves and multiplying the individuals of their race."
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info 216 years ago 1798(BC/AD) Thomas Malthus First edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population
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info 212 years ago 1802(BC/AD) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Publishes Recherches sur l'Organisation des Corps Vivants where he lays out the idea of evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics.
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info 205 years ago 1809(BC/AD) First evolutionary species concept Lamarck, 1809 "Thus, among living bodies, nature, as I have already said, definitely contains nothing but individuals which succeed one another by reproduction and spring from one another; but the species among them have only a relative constancy and are only invariable temporarily. Nevertheless, to facilitate the study and knowledge of so many different bodies it is useful to give the name of species to any collection of like individuals perpetuated by reproduction without change, so long as their environment does not alter enough to cause variations in their habits, character and shape."
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info 202 years ago 1812(BC/AD) Cuvier Wrote "There are no human fossil bones" when dismissing the Lake Constance skeleton in Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles des quadrupèdes [Research on the Fossil Bones of Quadrupeds]
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info 201 years ago 1813(BC/AD) William Charles Wells Two Essays... with some observations on the causes of the differences of colour and form between the white and negro races of men. By the Late W.C. Wells?with a Memoir of his life, written by himself: "[What was done for animals artificially] seems to be done with equal efficiency, though more slowly, by nature, in the formation of varieties of mankind, fitted for the country which they inhabit. Of the accidental varieties of man, which would occur among the first scattered inhabitants, some one would be better fitted than the others to bear the diseases of the country. This race would multiply while the others would decrease, and as the darkest would be the best fitted for the [African] climate, at length [they would] become the most prevalent, if not the only race.""
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info 189 years ago 1825(BC/AD) Nicéphore Niépce First photographs.
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info 185 years ago 1829(BC/AD) Phillipe-Charles Schmerling Engis Neanderthal cranium found at Engis, Liege, Belgium in sediments containing bones of extinct animals. Fossil not recognized for its importance until 1836.
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info 184 years ago 1830(BC/AD) Lyell Principles of Geology - Published in 3 volumes from 1830-1833. Very detailed documentation of sedimentology was a major milestone in the documentation of uniformitarianism.
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info 183 years ago 1831(BC/AD) Patrick Matthew Patrick Matthew (1790-1874) noticed natural selection before Darwin (but after Hutton). His 1831 Book called On Naval Timber and Arboriculture included the follwong passages:
" As nature, in all her modifications of life, has a power of increase far beyond what is needed to supply the place of what falls by Time's decay, those individuals who possess not the requisite strength, swiftness, hardihood, or cunning, fall prematurely without reproducing -- either a prey to their natural devourers, or sinking under disease, generally induced by want of nourishment, their place being occupied by the more perfect of their own kind, who are pressing on the means of subsistence. "
"There is more beauty and unity of design in this continual balancing of life to circumstance, and greater conformity to those dispositions of nature which are manifest to us, than in total destruction and new creation. It is improbable that much of this diversification is owing to commixture of species nearly allied, all change by this appears very limited, and confined within the bounds of what is called species; the progeny of the same parents, under great differences of circumstance, might, in several generations, even become distinct species, incapable of co-reproduction. "
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info 175 years ago 1839(BC/AD) Samuel Morton Samuel Morton publishes Crania Americana, one of the founding tomes of "scientific" racism
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info 174 years ago 1840(BC/AD) Louis Agassiz A student of Cuvier, views Ice Age as a single event. Agassiz integrated observations of glacier marks to formulate his theory that a great Ice Age had once gripped the Earth, and published his theory in Étude sur les glaciers in 1840. Agassiz was correct in the existence of an ice age, but wrong about there being only one.
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info 173 years ago 1841(BC/AD) Oracle of Reason Engraving of 'Fossil Man' in Figure 9 of the first installment of 'The Theory of Regular Gradation.' This was one of many early discussions of evolution that lacked an adequate causal mechanism.
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info 172 years ago 1842(BC/AD) George Jacob Holyoake George Jacob Holyoake convicted for blasphemy in England. He serves 6 moths in jail for atheistic sentiments in the Oracle of Reason. After the Oracle closed at the end of 1843, Holyoake founded a more moderate paper, The Movement, which survived until 1845. Holyoake then established the Reasoner, where he developed the concept of secularism.
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info 170 years ago 1844(BC/AD) Robert Chambers Publishes Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. "The book, as far as I am aware, is the first attempt to connect the natural sciences in a history of creation."
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info 167 years ago 1847(BC/AD) Thomas Staughton Savage Gorillas described from specimens collected in Liberia
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info 166 years ago 1848(BC/AD) Clive Finlayson Found by a Lieutenant Flint at Forbes Quarry, Gibralter neanderthal cranium first mentioned; forgotten in Gibralter Scientific Society until discovery of cranium in Neander Valley, Germany (Neandertal)
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info 165 years ago 1849(BC/AD) Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes Boucher de Perthes publishes his discovery of stone tools. About the year 1830 he had found, in the gravels of the Somme valley, primitive tools with extinct animals in the gravels of Menchecourt. In 1847 he commenced the issue of his monumental three volume work, Antiquites Celtiques Et Antediluviennes, a work in which he was the first to establish the existence of man in the Pleistocene or early Quaternary period.
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info 158 years ago 1856(BC/AD) Johann Carl Fuhlrott In 1856, workers in a lime quarry at Feldhoffer Cave in a canyon called Neanderthal showed him bones they had found in a cave and thought to belong to a bear. Fuhlrott identified them as human and thought them to be very old. Bonn University professor Shaaffhausen announced them as a "barbarian race of European natives."
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info 156 years ago 1858(BC/AD) Alfred Wallace Wallace sends letter to Darwin outlining natural selection theory. This prompts Darwin to publish his ideas, which he does in a joint publication with Wallace . The Darwin Wallace paper was presented to the Linnean Society on July 1st, 1858 and published in Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Vol 3, 1858. pp 45-62.
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info 155 years ago 1859(BC/AD) Charles Darwin Publishes Origin of Species, the book that clearly articulates his theory of natural selection and its potential to generate new species through the divergence of two parts of a parent species. Darwin was prompted by the similar discovery and articulation of this phenomenon by Alfred Russel Wallace.
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info 155 years ago 1859(BC/AD) Pierre-Paul Broca Founded the Société d’Anthropologie, Paris (Anthropological Society of Paris).
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info 154 years ago 1860(BC/AD) Ernst Heinrich Haeckel Frequently lectured about the Asian origin of hominids in the decades following the publication of the Origin of Species. This incorrect idea, based on the mistaken idea that orangutans were the closest living relatives of humans, influenced Eugene Dubois.
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info 152 years ago 1862(BC/AD) Lord Kelvin (William Thompson) Published calculations that fixed the age of Earth at between 20 million and 400 million years. He assumed that Earth had been created as a completely molten ball of rock, and determined the amount of time it took for the ball to cool to its present temperature. His calculations did not account for the ongoing heat source in the form of radioactive decay, which was unknown at the time. Geologists had trouble accepting such a short age for Earth. Biologists could accept that Earth might have a finite age, but even 100 million years seemed much too short to be plausible. Charles Darwin, who had studied Lyell's work, had proposed his theory of the evolution of organisms by natural selection, a process whose combination of random heritable variation and cumulative selection implies great expanses of time. (Geneticists have subsequently measured the rate of genetic divergence of species, using the molecular clock, to date the last universal ancestor of all living organisms no later than 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago). In a lecture in 1869, Darwin's great advocate, Thomas H. Huxley, attacked Thomson's calculations, suggesting they appeared precise in themselves but were based on faulty assumptions. The German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz (in 1856) and the Canadian astronomer Simon Newcomb (in 1892) contributed their own calculations of 22 and 18 million years respectively to the debate: they independently calculated the amount of time it would take for the Sun to condense down to its current diameter and brightness from the nebula of gas and dust from which it was born. Their values were consistent with Thomson's calculations. However, they assumed that the Sun was only glowing from the heat of its gravitational contraction. The process of solar nuclear fusion was not yet known to science. Other scientists backed up Thomson's figures as well. Charles Darwin's son, the astronomer George H. Darwin of the University of Cambridge, proposed that Earth and Moon had broken apart in their early days when they were both molten. He calculated the amount of time it would have taken for tidal friction to give Earth its current 24-hour day. His value of 56 million years added additional evidence that Thomson was on the right track. The last estimate Thomson gave, in 1897, was: "that it was more than 20 and less than 40 million year old, and probably much nearer 20 than 40". Dalrymple, G. 1994. The Age of the Earth. Stanford University Press
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info 151 years ago 1863(BC/AD) Charles Lyell Publishes The Geological Evidence of the Antiquity of Man. Lyell uses archaeological discoveries described by Edward Lartet (father of Luis), Henri Christi and Hugh Falkner, the Magdalenian, Mousterian, and Aurignacian to argue the deep antiquity of humanity.
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info 151 years ago 1863(BC/AD) Thomas Henry Huxley Publishes Man's Place in Nature. Later quotes: "Truth is great, certainly, but, considering her greatness, it is curious what a long time she is apt to take about prevailing. When, towards the end of 1862, I had finished writing Man's Place in Nature, I could say with a good conscience, that my conclusions had not been formed hastily or enunciated crudely."
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info 150 years ago 1864(BC/AD) William King Names Homo neanderthalensis.
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info 150 years ago 1864(BC/AD) Homo neanderthalensis Species named.
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info 150 years ago 1864(BC/AD) George Busk Exhibited Gibralter cranium in England in September at the British Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Bath. At the meeting, the eminent scientist, Hugh Falconer recognized the fossil as 'a very low type of humanity - very low and savage, and of extreme antiquity'.
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info 148 years ago 1866(BC/AD) J. D. Whitney Calveras cranium found. Later turned out to be a hoax.
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info 148 years ago 1866(BC/AD) Edouart Dupont ______________________________
info 146 years ago 1868(BC/AD) Louis Lartet Cro Magnon specimens found near Les Eyzies, France. Modern Humans with fossil fauna.
"Louis Lartet, son of Edward, made a vital discovery in the Dordogne Valley of France in 1868. Workmen laying a railway line along the river valley dug into deposits of an ancient rock shelter, exposing archaeological strata. Lartet found bones of three adult males, a woman, and an infant buried in deposits rich in archaeological materials stylistically similar to those found in a cave at Aurignac. These became the famous type specimens of early humans known as Cro-Magnon. It was the scientists' first look at the anatomy of Paleolithic people, and what a surprise! They were extraordinarily like modern Europeans. They had none of the pongid-like characteristics that might have been expected from the Darwinian ideas of evolution, but there could be no doubt about their antiquity." (21 Aug 2004 Department of Department of Anthropology, College of Liberal Arts , UT Austin Comments to cbramblett@mail.utexas.edu)
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info 143 years ago 1871(BC/AD) Charles Darwin Publishes The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Wikipedia
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info 143 years ago 1871(BC/AD) Rudolf Virchow An extremely prominent anti-evolution anatomist of the late 1800's in Germany, Virchow pronounced Neanderthal specimens to be a modern Homo sapiens, whose deformations were caused by rickets and arthritis. Virchow thought the flattened skull was the result of cranial trauma. Virchow's views were widely accepted until 1886, when two more Neanderthal skeletons were discovered in a cave in the Spy region of Belgium. While Virchow claimed that these too were the remains of diseased modern humans, other scientists regarded such a coincidence as unlikely
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info 128 years ago 1886(BC/AD) Marcel de Puydt, Max Lohest, Julien Fraipont Neanderthal fossils found at the Spy caves. Spy 1 Estimated age: 60,000 years Location: Belgium Discovered at the Grotto of Spy (pronounced "spee") d'Orneau in Belgium, this find consisted of two nearly complete skeletons and partial crania. The crania show heavy brow ridges very different from anatomically modern humans. Fossil analysis established that the individuals were very old when they died, largely discrediting the previously held idea that the Neanderthal physique was a pathological condition.
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info 127 years ago 1887(BC/AD) Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet Mousterian tradition named and described.
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info 126 years ago 1888(BC/AD) Robert Elliott Pleistocene modern man at Galley Hill discovered. "At a time when so much attention is being directed to the implements made by Palaeolithic Man, the discovery of a human skeleton in the Palaeolithic gravels of this country cannot but awaken much interest." No one paid much attention to it until Keith in the early 20th Century.
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info 126 years ago 1888(BC/AD) Fouilles Hardy, FĂ©aux Chancelade modern human remains found. The "Man of Chancelade" is the skeleton of an anatomically modern human found in 1888 in the cave to Raymonden Chancelade Dordogne. The age of death was 55 to 65, and the skeleton was buried in a strongly bent position. The skeleton was Pleistocene: 12 000 to 17 000 BC. People at the time argued that it showed that paleolithic Europeans were more like foragers living in the arctic than the modern inhabitants of Europe.
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info 126 years ago 1888(BC/AD) Theodor Boveri Working on sea urchin embryos, Boveri discovered importance of the chromosomes, discovered the centromere, beginning of realization that chromosomes are important to inheritance of traits.
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info 124 years ago 1890(BC/AD) Eugene Dubois Very early fossil material from Kedung Brubus. Found 1 year before the discovery of the trinil skullcap.
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info 123 years ago 1891(BC/AD) Eugene Dubois Trinil femur found.
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info 122 years ago 1892(BC/AD) Eugene Dubois Anthropopithecus erectus named based on molar and skullcap
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info 122 years ago 1892(BC/AD) Anthropopithecus erectus species named.
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info 121 years ago 1893(BC/AD) Eugene Dubois Pithecanthropus a name originally used by Haekel for "ape-like man" or Pithe- canthropi (as opposed to "man-like ape") is applied to Java fossils.
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info 119 years ago 1895(BC/AD) Eugene Dubois Presents Pithecanthropus erectus in Europe.
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info 115 years ago 1899(BC/AD) Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger 1899-1905 Kramberger discovers Krapina neanderthals. This firmly established the existence of non-modern "early humans." With a population of individuals showing the same mosaic of primitive features, neanderthals were not just diseased or otherwise pathological modern humans.
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info 113 years ago 1901(BC/AD) First course in Physical anthropology taught at UC Berkeley.
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info 113 years ago 1901(BC/AD) Rene Verneau Grimaldi Homo sapiens found... Grimaldi became popular as an African-like prehistoric European.
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info 113 years ago 1901(BC/AD) Theodor Boveri 1901-1905 Experiments lead to the discovery that chromosomes in the nucleus were responsible for passing genetic information. Boveri, T. 1902. On multipolar mitosis as a means of analysis of the cell nucleus. Foundations of Experimental Embryology. New York, Prentice Hall 1964: 74?97.
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info 108 years ago 1906(BC/AD) Gustav Schwalbe Interprets human evolution as 3 stage unilineal: Pithecanthropus,Neanderthal, and modern humans.
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info 108 years ago 1906(BC/AD) Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger Krapina monograph published. 1906. Der diluviale Mensch von Krapina in Kroatien. Ein Beitrag zur Paläoanthropologie. Studien über Entwicklungsmechanik des Primatskelettes mit besondrer Berücksichtigung der Anthropologie und Descendenslehre. Herausgegeben von Dr. Otton Walkhoff, Weisbaden, 4to, 1906.
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info 108 years ago 1906(BC/AD) Ernest Rutherford Geological samples dated to 1.3 billion years, shifting the balance of scientific thought. The conventional widsom, after Lord Kelvin's (and other's) thermodynamic calculations estimated the Earth's age to be between 20 million and 100 million.
I came into the room, which was half dark, and presently spotted Lord Kelvin in the audience and realized that I was in trouble at the last part of my speech dealing with the age of the earth, where my views conflicted with his. To my relief, Kelvin fell fast asleep, but as I came to the important point, I saw the old bird sit up, open an eye, and cock a baleful glance at me! Then a sudden inspiration came, and I said, 'Lord Kelvin had limited the age of the earth, provided no new source was discovered. That prophetic utterance refers to what we are now considering tonight, radium!' Behold! the old boy beamed upon me.
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info 107 years ago 1907(BC/AD) Otto Schoetensack Mauer mandible discovered by workman, who gave it to professor Otto Schoetensack. Homo heidelbergensis
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info 106 years ago 1908(BC/AD) Ludwig Pfeiffer Ehringsdorf neanderthals found; Pfeiffer, L. 1912 Die Steinzeitliche Technik und ihre Beziehungen zur Gegenwart. Jena: Verlag von Gustaf Fischer.
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info 106 years ago 1908(BC/AD) Otto Hauser Le Moustier neanderthal found by Swiss archaeologist Otto Hauser in Dordogne.
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info 106 years ago 1908(BC/AD) A. and J. Bouyssonie, and L. Bardon Discovered neanderthal fossils at La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Interpreted by Marcellin Boule, whose reconstruction of neandertal anatomy based on la Chapelle-aux-Saints material shaped popular perceptions of the Neandertals for over thirty years.
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info 106 years ago 1908(BC/AD) Homo heidelbergensis species named.
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info 105 years ago 1909(BC/AD) Otto Hauser Homo sapiens found at Combe Capelle, Dordogne.
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info 105 years ago 1909(BC/AD) A. Penck, E. Bruckner Glacials named for tributaries of the Danube River in Germany.\r\nBased on Relative levels of river terraces separated by weathering and soils.\r\n\r\nGlacials:\r\nWĂśRM\r\nRISS\r\nMINDEL\r\nGUNZ\r\n\r\n\r\n
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info 105 years ago 1909(BC/AD) Luis Capitan, Denis Peyrony Discoverers of La Ferraissie neanderthals: Captita, L. and D. Peyrony. 1909. Duex squelettes humains au milieu de foyers de l'époque moustérienne. Revue de l'Ecole d'Anthropologie de Paris 19:402-9.
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info 105 years ago 1909(BC/AD) Marcellin Boule 1909-1912 Publishes La Chapelle-aux-Saints neanderthal skeleton. Suggested that neanderthals were beast-like, walked with bent knees, and had a 'shambling' gait, with a head slung forward on a squat neck, with a big toe like a chimp's.
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info 103 years ago 1911(BC/AD) Arthur Keith Pronounces Galley Hill, Swanscombe, Kent is ancient evidence for Homo sapiens. Keith, who would later be pivotal in the Piltdown hoax, suggested that the galley hill specimens were as old as 170,000 years old and dicounted their neanderthal affinities. Now Swanscombe thought to be around 400k years old (Stringer and Hublin, 1999)
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info 103 years ago 1911(BC/AD) Marcellin Boule 1911-1913 Monographs La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Boule, M (1911) L'homme fossile de La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Ann. Paléontol. 6: 111-172. Links Boule, M (1912a) L'homme fossile de La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Ann. Paléontol. 7: 21-56, 85-192. Links Boule, M (1912b) Sur L'Homo neanderthalensis. L'Anthropol. 23: 598-601. Links Boule, M (1912c) L'homme fossile de Piltdown, Sussex (Angleterre). L'Anthropol. 23: 742-744. Links Boule, M (1913) L'homme fossile de La Chapelle-aux-Saints. Ann. Paléontol. 8: 1-70. Links
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info 103 years ago 1911(BC/AD) Charles Dawson Dawson present at Piltdown
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info 103 years ago 1911(BC/AD) Wilhelm Kattwinkel German Butterfly collector discovers Olduvai Gorge.
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info 102 years ago 1912(BC/AD) Arthur Smith Woodward, Charles Dawson Piltdown announced. Arthur Keith announces support for 'pre-sapiens" school, rejecting neanderthals as direct human ancestors. Piltdown seemed to support this view.
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info 102 years ago 1912(BC/AD) Henri Breuil Acheulean and Upper Paleolithic are defined. Henri Breuil. 1912. Les Subdivisions du Paléolithique supérieur et leur signification. Compte Rendu du Congrès International d'Anthropologie et Archéologie Préhistorique XIVme Sess., Géneève, 1912, pp. 165-238.
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info 102 years ago 1912(BC/AD) Alfred Wegener Proposes continental Drift
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info 101 years ago 1913(BC/AD) Hans Reck Works at Olduvai and finds OH-1 modern human.
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info 101 years ago 1913(BC/AD) Arthur Holmes Publishes Age of the Earth in which he dates earth at 1.5 billion years old.
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info 100 years ago 1914(BC/AD) WWI German academic school of paleoanthrpology withers, and African colonialism effectively ends.
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info 97 years ago 1917(BC/AD) Homo capensis species named.
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info 96 years ago 1918(BC/AD) Roy Chapman Andrews 1918, 1921-25; famous explorer, dinosaur hunter, exemplar of Anglo-Saxon virtues, crack shot, fighter of Mongolian brigands, went looking for fossil hominids in Central Asia leading an AMNH (American Museum of Natural History; AKA the Smithsonian) expedition.
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info 96 years ago 1918(BC/AD) Ronald Aylmer Fisher Showed how continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be the result of the action of many discrete genetic loci. Fisher, along with J.B.S. Haldane, and Sewall Wright, founded population genetics around this time.
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info 93 years ago 1921(BC/AD) Arthur Smith Woodward Homo rhodesiensis named for Broken Hill (Kabwe) Cranium. Woodward, Arthur Smith (1921). "A New Cave Man from Rhodesia, South Africa". Nature 108: 371–372. doi:10.1038/108371a0
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info 93 years ago 1921(BC/AD) Aleš Hrdlička 1921-1924 advocates Neanderthals as direct human ancestors. HrdliÄŤka sums it up in The Neanderthal Phase of Man.
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info 93 years ago 1921(BC/AD) Johan Gunnar Andersson, Walter W. Granger, Otto Zdansky Excavations begin at Zhoukoudian.
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info 93 years ago 1921(BC/AD) Homo rhodesiensis species named.
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info 90 years ago 1924(BC/AD) Raymond Dart Taung child found by quarryman working for the Northern Lime Company in Taung, South Africa. Published in 1925 by Raymond Dart in Nature as Australopithecus africanus
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info 89 years ago 1925(BC/AD) Australopithecus africanus species named.
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info 87 years ago 1927(BC/AD) Davidson Black Publishes Sinanthropus pekinensis in Nature based on a single tooth.
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info 87 years ago 1927(BC/AD) Sinanthropus pekinensis species named.
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info 86 years ago 1928(BC/AD) Davidson Black First cranial remains discovered at Zhoukoudian. Over the next 10 years, before Japanese occupation in 1937, over 200 hominid fossils are recovered under the direction of Yang Zhongjian, Pei Wenzhong, and Jia Lanpo. Lost during WW II, but great casts made by Franz Weidenreich still exist.
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info 85 years ago 1929(BC/AD) E. J. Wayland Proposes pluvials in eastern Africa that correspond to the 4 European glaciations.
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info 85 years ago 1929(BC/AD) Ernst Schwarz Names Pan paniscus, the bonobos, as a species separate from the common chimp, Pan troglodytes. Schwarz, E., 1929. Das Vorkommen des Schimpansen auf den linken Kongo-Ufer. Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 16, 425-426.
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info 85 years ago 1929(BC/AD) Dorothy Garrod 1929-1932 Mt. Carmel; Mugharet es-Skhul skeletons found. Garrod, D.A.E. 1934. et-Tabun Diary. Fonds Suzanne Cassou de Saint-Mathurin de la Bibliothèque du Musée des Antiquités Nationales de Saint Germain-en-Laye. Illustrated London News.
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info 84 years ago 1930(BC/AD) Aleš Hrdlička In Skeletal Remains of Early Man promotes a unilineal hypothesis for human evolution with neanderthals as human ancestors. He also discounts the value of Piltdown.
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info 83 years ago 1931(BC/AD) Louis Leakey Third East African Expedition: Leakey's first excavations; Olduwan tools found at Olduvai and OH 1 interpreted as their maker.
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info 83 years ago 1931(BC/AD) W. F. F. Oppennoorth, Ralph von Koenigswald Ngandong (Solo) crania found. These had larger cranial capacities than the trinil or Zhoukoudian specimens.
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info 83 years ago 1931(BC/AD) Sewell Wright Publishes "Shifting Balance Theory," which uses the concept of an adaptive landscape to explain evolution. Publishes in 1931 Genetics Society of America (Wright, S., Evolution in Mendelian populations, Genetics 16, 97-159 ).
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) Louis Leakey Finds Kanjera Skull parts and Kanam mandible in Kenya Colony, British East Africa.
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) Dorothy Garrod Tabun fossils discovered. Thought of as a female neanderthal.
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) Camille Arambourg 1932-1933: First Expeditions to Omo Valley, Ethiopia. No hominids found.
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) Javanthropus soloensis species named.
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) G. Edward Lewis Finds Ramapithecus fossils in Siwaliks. Names Ramapithecus in 1934 and suggests that it might be earliest human ancestor.
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info 82 years ago 1932(BC/AD) Thomas F. Dreyer Discovers skull at Florisbad, a place where Robert Broom had worked since 1912. Dreyer names it Homo helmei
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info 81 years ago 1933(BC/AD) Karl Sigrist Steinheim cranium found. Published 1933: Berkhemer, F. 1933. Ein Menshen-Schädel aus diluvialen Schottern von Steinheim a.d. Murr. Anthropol. Anz. 10:318-321
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info 81 years ago 1933(BC/AD) Louis Leakey Homo kanamensis proposed as distinct species at a meeting. Written proposal of species occurs in the same year. Leakey, L. S. B. 1933 The status of the Kanam mandible and the Kanjera skulls. Man , 33: 200-201.
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info 80 years ago 1934(BC/AD) Louis Leakey First edition of Adam's Ancestors. Leakey agrees with Keith (in error) about Piltdown and Galley Hill. Leakey would stay convinced of finding some evidence of very early Homo sapiens
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info 80 years ago 1934(BC/AD) Louis Leaky Fourth East African Expedition, first adult Australopithecus fossil found at Laetoli, but unrecognized until 1979.
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info 80 years ago 1934(BC/AD) Davidson Black Davidson Black dies. Franz Weidenreich takes over at Zhoukoudian.
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info 79 years ago 1935(BC/AD) Louis Leakey, Percy George Hamnall Boswell Kanam and Kanjera incident.
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info 79 years ago 1935(BC/AD) Alvan Theophilus Marston 1935, 1936 (and later in 1955) Swanscombe discovered. Finding Time for the Old Stone Age: A History of Palaeolithic Archaeology and Quaternary Geology in Britain, 1860-1960 (Hardcover) by Anne O'Connor
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info 79 years ago 1935(BC/AD) Africanthropus helmei species named.
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info 79 years ago 1935(BC/AD) Homo kanamensis species named.
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info 78 years ago 1936(BC/AD) Andoyo, G. H. Ralph von Koenigsvald Mojokerto calvaria found somwhere in Java by Andoyo, site itself would be lost and is the subject of ongoing controversy . PDF describing discovery fiasco
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info 78 years ago 1936(BC/AD) Franz Weidenreich 1936-1943 Monographs of Zhoukoudian "Sinanthropus" published. The Zhoukoudian fossils were lost during WWII, but Weidenreich's descriptions were excellent, and the specimens are still known from precision casts he made.
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info 78 years ago 1936(BC/AD) Hans Reck, Ludwig Kohl-Larsen Palaeoanthropus njarasensis named for Lake Eyasi cranium found in 1935. Garusi mandible was also found in 1935. KOHL-LARSEN L, RECK H (1936) Erster Ueberblick über die Jung-diluvialen Tier und Menschenfunde. Dr. Kohl-Larsen’s im Nordöstlichen Teil des Njarasa-Grabens (Ostafrika). Geologische Rundschau 27, 401–441. Protsch, R The Kohl-Larsen Eyasi and Garusi hominoid Finds in Tanzania and their relation to Homo erectus in Sigmon, B.A. and Cybulski, J.S. (Ed): Proceedings of a Symposium on Homo erectus in honour of Davidson Black, 1977, Toronto.
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info 78 years ago 1936(BC/AD) Ralph von Koenigsvald Names Homo modjokertensis citations: Von Koenigswald, G.H.R., 1936. Pithecanthropus erectus: Antwoord dr. Von Koenigswald - Handelsblad, Ochtend editie, 7 mei, 1936 Von Koenigswald, G.H.R., 1936. Erste Mitteilung über einen fossilen Hominiden aus dem Altpleistocän Ostjavas - Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 39: 1000 –1009
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info 78 years ago 1936(BC/AD) Robert Broom Broom was handed the endocast of a hominid cranium by the quarry manager at Sterfontein. One month later his report on Australopithecus transvaalensis appeared in Nature. Several more Australopithecus fossils were discovered in the next few years.
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info 77 years ago 1937(BC/AD) WWII World War II comes to Peking (Beijing). Zhoukoudian specimens lost.
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info 76 years ago 1938(BC/AD) Theodore McCown UC Berkeley's first physical anthropologist. Collaborator of Sir Aurthur Keith at Mt. Carmel.
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info 76 years ago 1938(BC/AD) Robert Broom Named Plesianthropus transvaalensis for Sterkfontein specimens. Now it is generally synonymized with Australopithecus africanus.
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info 76 years ago 1938(BC/AD) Robert Broom Named Paranthropus robustus for Kroomdrai material. The Pleistocene Anthropoid Apes of South Africa R. BROOM Nature 142, 377 - 379 (1938) | doi:10.1038/142377a0.
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info 76 years ago 1938(BC/AD) Paranthropus robustus species named.
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info 75 years ago 1939(BC/AD) Theodore McCown, Arthur Keith Publish monograph on Skhul and Tabun, interfingered Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sites in Israel. Swansong of "pre-neanderthal" hypothesis. McCown, T., Keith, A., 1939. The Stone Age of Mount Carmel: the Fossil Human Remains from the Levalloiso-Mousterian, Vol. II. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
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info 75 years ago 1939(BC/AD) Ludwig Kohl-Larsen Expedition to Laetoli reveals maxilla fragment and molar.
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info 73 years ago 1941(BC/AD) Franz Weidenreich Weidenreich moves to American Museum of Natural History (New York)
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info 72 years ago 1942(BC/AD) Ernst Mayr Systematics and the Origin of Species published. Mayr emphasized the importance of allopatric speciation, where geographically isolated sub-populations diverge so far that reproductive isolation occurs. Mayr also introduced the biological species concept that defined a species as a group of interbreeding or potentially interbreeding populations that were reproductively isolated from all other populations.
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info 72 years ago 1942(BC/AD) Louis Leakey Finds Proconsul from Rusinga Island. Originally promoted as the comon ancestor of humans and apes. Genus named by Hopwood in 1933 for fossils he discovered on one of the early 1930's Leakey expeditions.
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info 72 years ago 1942(BC/AD) Julian Huxley Writes Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, a book outlining modern evolutionary synthesis (also referred to as the new synthesis, the modern synthesis, the evolutionary synthesis, and the neo-darwinian synthesis), which showed that Mendelian genetics was consistent with natural selection and gradual evolution. Major figures involved in the new sysnthesis include: include R. A. Fisher, Theodosius Dobzhansky, J.B.S. Haldane, Sewall Wright, E.B. Ford, Ernst Mayr, and George Gaylord Simpson.
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info 72 years ago 1942(BC/AD) Ernst Mayr Writes Systematics and the Origin of Species showing that Neo-Darwinism is consistent with patterns observed in nature. Mayr also develops ideas of peripatric speciation and the biological species concept.
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info 70 years ago 1944(BC/AD) George Gaylord Simpson Tempo and Mode in Evolution published. Until Simpson's synthesis, many paleontologists had been skeptical that natural selection was the main component of evolution. In Tempo and Mode, Simpson showed that the trends of linear progression (in for example the evolution of the horse) that earlier paleontologists had used as support for neo-Lamarckism and orthogenesis did not hold up under careful examination. Instead the fossil record was consistent with the irregular, branching, and non-directional pattern predicted by the modern synthesis.
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info 67 years ago 1947(BC/AD) Robert Broom Pelvis from Sterkfontein. Ms Ples (STS 5) also found.
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info 67 years ago 1947(BC/AD) Louis Leakey First Pan African Conference. See link for J D Clark transcribed discussion of the conference.
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info 66 years ago 1948(BC/AD) Raymond Dart names Australopithecus prometheus from Makapansgat hominids found starting 1947. Makapansgat fossils generally considered to be Australopithecus africanus.
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info 65 years ago 1949(BC/AD) Robert Broom names Paranthropus crassidens from Swartkrans. Now it is considered to be Australopithecus robustus.
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info 65 years ago 1949(BC/AD) Robert Broom, John T. Robinson Name Telanthropus capensis for Swartkrans fossils. Broom, R. , and Robinson, J. T. , Nature, 164, 322 (1949).
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info 65 years ago 1949(BC/AD) Telanthropus capensis species named.
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info 64 years ago 1950(BC/AD) Hans Weinert Weinert publishes Meganthropus africanus for Laetoli specimens. Weinert H (1950) Uber die neuen vor- und fruhmenschenfunde aus Afrika, Java, China und Frankreich. Z. Morphol. Anthropol. 42: 113-148.
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info 64 years ago 1950(BC/AD) Ernst Mayr Argues effectively for a more sensible, biologically realistic approach to species naming among hominids. Unifies Homo erectus. Mayr, Ernst. 1950. Taxonomic categories in fossil hominids. Cold Spring HarborSymposium on Quantitative Biology 13:109-118.
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info 64 years ago 1950(BC/AD) Meganthropus africanus species named.
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info 63 years ago 1951(BC/AD) F. Clark Howell Argues that classic neandethals evolved from progressive 'neanderthals' that had not evolved the extreme cold-adapted features. Argues that the later is the progenitor of Homo sapiens.
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info 62 years ago 1952(BC/AD) Wilfrid Le Gros Clark Performs dental study that confirms Australopithecus's status as a hominid.
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info 61 years ago 1953(BC/AD) Ralph Solecki Shanidar neanderthals discovered in Iraq. Eastern boundary of neanderthals extended.
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info 61 years ago 1953(BC/AD) James D. Watson, Francis Crick Suggested what is now accepted as the first correct double-helix model of DNA structure in the journal Nature.Their double-helix, molecular model of DNA was then based on a single X-ray diffraction image taken by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling in May 1952, as well as the information that the DNA bases were paired?also obtained through private communications from Erwin Chargaff in the previous years.
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info 61 years ago 1953(BC/AD) J. S. Weiner, Kenneth Oakley, Wilfrid Le Gros Clark Piltdown is exposed in July of 1953 at an international congress of paleontologists, under the auspices of the Wenner-Gren Foundation, in London.
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info 60 years ago 1954(BC/AD) John T. Robinson Publishes Dietary Hypothesis about Australopithecus and "Paranthropus". J. T. Robinson Evolution, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 324-334 Published by: Society for the Study of Evolution
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info 60 years ago 1954(BC/AD) Henri Vallois The Fontéchevade hominins were published in 1958 by Henri Vallois. For Vallois, the two specimens provided the best piece of evidence for the Pre-Sapiens interpretation of hominid evolution.
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info 59 years ago 1955(BC/AD) Cesare Emiliani Oxegen Isotopes seen as a proxy for glaciation.
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info 58 years ago 1956(BC/AD) R. F. Flint, Henry Basil Stratton Cook "Pluvial" concept argued against from geological and paleontological perspectives.
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info 58 years ago 1956(BC/AD) Garniss Hearfield Curtis, Joseph Lipson, Jack F Evernden Potassium argon dating published.
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info 55 years ago 1959(BC/AD) Zinjanthropus boisei species named.
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info 55 years ago 1959(BC/AD) Mary, Louis Leakey Discovery and subsequent naming of Zinjanthropus boisei.
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info 53 years ago 1961(BC/AD) Elwyn Simons Ressurects Ramapithecus. Over the next decade Simons and David Pilbeam are very active in promoting its hominid status. Eventually molecular clocks demonstrating the late divergence of humans and chimps along with fossils of very primitive, yet totally bipedal hominids (Lucy) from 3 Ma sideline Ramapithecus.
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info 52 years ago 1962(BC/AD) Carleton Coon Publishes The Origin of Races. Race concept untilized extensively.
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info 50 years ago 1964(BC/AD) Louis Leakey, Philip Tobias, John R. Napier publish Homo habilis. Leakey, L.S.B., Tobias, P.V. & Napier, J.R. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202(4927): 7-9. [4 Apr 1964]
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info 50 years ago 1964(BC/AD) C. Loring Brace Brace continued his rebuttals to the 'pre-sapiens' school (Keith, Boule, Leakey) in 1964 in "The Fate of the 'Classic' Neanderthals: a consideration of hominid catastrophism" published in Current Anthropology. Considered Neanderthals to be human ancestors.
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info 50 years ago 1964(BC/AD) Homo habilis species named
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info 47 years ago 1967(BC/AD) Camille Arambourg, Yves Coppens edentulous mandible (Omo 18) found west of the Omo River, in 1967. The 2.5 million-year-old mandible was names Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus.
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info 47 years ago 1967(BC/AD) Allan Wilson, Vincent Sarich Publich date for 4-5 million years ago based on blood albumin and hemglobin divergence.
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info 46 years ago 1968(BC/AD) Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus species named.
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info 42 years ago 1972(BC/AD) Richard Leakey announces KNM-ER 1470 at Koobi Fora.
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info 40 years ago 1974(BC/AD) Donald Johanson, Tom Gray Donald Johanson announces discovery of "Lucy," AL-288-1, from Hadar, Ethiopia
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info 39 years ago 1975(BC/AD) Homo ergaster species named.
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info 38 years ago 1976(BC/AD) Mary Leakey, Andrew Hill Laetoli footprints discovered dunging dung fight. Site excavated in 1978 and 1979.
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info 36 years ago 1978(BC/AD) Donald Johanson, Tim D. White, Yves Coppens publish species Australopithecus afarensis based on material from Laetoli and Hadar
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info 36 years ago 1978(BC/AD) Australopithecus afarensis species named.
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info 30 years ago 1984(BC/AD) Kamoya Kimeu KNM-ER 15000 discovered west of Lake Turkana by Kamoya Kimeu, published in 1985. Alan Walker and Richard Leakey (eds.), ed.. Nariokotome Homo Erectus Skeleton. ISBN 0-674-60075-4
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info 28 years ago 1986(BC/AD) Alan Walker KNM-WT 17000 discovered by Alan Walker, confirms Australopithecus aethiopicus
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info 28 years ago 1986(BC/AD) Pithecanthropus rudolfensis species named.
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info 27 years ago 1987(BC/AD) Rebecca Cann, Mark Stoneking, Allan Wilson Mitochondrial eve.
Wilson, A.C., Stoneking, M. and Cann, R.L. (1991) Syst. Zool. 40, 363-365 Maddison, D.R. (1991) Syst. Zool. 40, 355-363.
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info 22 years ago 1992(BC/AD) Gen Suwa First Middle Awash hominid discovered.
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info 21 years ago 1993(BC/AD) Juan Luis Arsuaga with colleagues publishes first skulls from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain
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info 20 years ago 1994(BC/AD) Jean-Marie Chauvet, Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire Recent discovery of Upper Paleolithic cave art.
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info 20 years ago 1994(BC/AD) Tim White, Gen Suwa, Berhane Asfaw Name Australopithecus ramidus, in 1995 revise to be new genus Ardipithecus ramidus.
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info 20 years ago 1994(BC/AD) Ron J. Clark Discover's "little foot" skeleton at Sterkfontein.
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info 20 years ago 1994(BC/AD) Australopithecus ramidus species named. Genus Ardipithecus named in follow corr. to Nature in 1995.
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info 19 years ago 1995(BC/AD) Meave Leakey, Craig Feibel, Ian MacDougall,, Alan Walker Name Australopithecus anamensis.
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info 19 years ago 1995(BC/AD) Australopithecus anamensis species named.
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info 19 years ago 1995(BC/AD) Australopithecus bahrelghazali species named.
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info 19 years ago 1995(BC/AD) L. Gabunia and A. Vekua First Dmanisi hominid mandible published
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info 18 years ago 1996(BC/AD) Michel Brunet Australopithecus bahrelghazali is a fossil hominin that was discovered in the Bahr el Ghazal valley near Koro Toro, in Chad, in 1993. Published as a new species in 1996.
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info 18 years ago 1996(BC/AD) Colette Dib*, Sabine Fauré*, Cécile Fizames*, Delphine Samson*, Nathalie Drouot*, Alain Vignal*, Philippe Millasseau*, Sophie Marc*, Jamile Kazan*, Eric Seboun*, Mark Lathrop†, Gabor Gyapay*, Jean Morissette*‡ & Jean Weissenbach Complete human genome published.
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info 17 years ago 1997(BC/AD) Krings M., Stone A., Schmitz R.W., Krainitzki H., Stoneking M., and Pääbo S First neanderthal DNA study published. Krings M., Stone A., Schmitz R.W., Krainitzki H., Stoneking M., and Pääbo S. (1997): Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans. Cell, 90:19-30.
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info 17 years ago 1997(BC/AD) BermĂşdez de Castro, J. M., J. L. Arsuaga, E. Carbonell, A. Rosas, I. Martinez and M. Mosquera Homo antecessor named
BermĂşdez de Castro, J. M., J. L. Arsuaga, E. Carbonell, A. Rosas, I. Martinez and M. Mosquera. 1997. A Hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible Ancestor to Neanderthals and Modern Humans. Science 276:1392-1395.
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info 17 years ago 1997(BC/AD) Homo antecessor species named.
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info 16 years ago 1998(BC/AD) Ron J Clark Discovers the rest of littlefoot skeleton in situ
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info 15 years ago 1999(BC/AD) Berhane Asfaw, Tim White, Owen Lovejoy, Bruce Latimer, Scott Simpson, Gen Suwa Australopithecus garhi: A New Species of Early Hominid from Ethiopia
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info 15 years ago 1999(BC/AD) Australopithecus garhi species named.
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info 14 years ago 2000(BC/AD) Martin Picford, Bridgette Senut Publish Orrorin tugenensis a new end-Miocene genus and species based on Lukeino fossils.
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info 13 years ago 2001(BC/AD) Meave G. Leakey, Fred Spoor, Frank H. Brown, Patrick N. Gathogo, Christopher Kiarie, Louise N. Leakey, and Ian McDougall New hominin genus from eastern Africa purported to show 'diverse' middle Pliocene lineages. Later shown to be too distorted to establish a new taxon.
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info 13 years ago 2001(BC/AD) Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Names Ardipithecus kadabba for Western Margin, Middle Awash, Ethiopia late Miocene fossils.
Haile-Selassie, Yohannes (2001), “Late Miocene Hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature, 412:178-181, July 12.
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info 13 years ago 2001(BC/AD) Ororrin tugenensis species named.
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info 13 years ago 2001(BC/AD) Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba subpecies name moved to species name in subsequent publication.
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info 13 years ago 2001(BC/AD) Ardipithecus kadabba species named
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info 12 years ago 2002(BC/AD) Brunet, Guy, Pilbeam, Mackaye, Likius, Ahounta, Beauvilain, Blondel, Bocherens, Boisserie, De Bonis, Coppens, Dejax, Denys, Duringer, Eisenmann, Fanone, Fronty, Geraads, Lehmann, Lihoreau, Louchart, Mahamat, Merceron, Mouchelin, Otero, Pelaez Campomanes, Ponce de LeĂłn, Rage, Sapanet, Schuster, Sudr Sahelanthropus tschadensis named
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info 12 years ago 2002(BC/AD) Sahelanthropus tchadensis species named
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info 12 years ago 2002(BC/AD) Homo georgicus species named.
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info 11 years ago 2003(BC/AD) Tim White, Berhane Asfaw, David Degusta, Henry Gilbert, Gary Richards, Gen Suwa, Clark Howell Circum diaspora Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens idaltu published from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopipa.
White, Tim D., Asfaw, B., DeGusta, D., Gilbert, H., Richards, G.D., Suwa, G. and Howell, F.C. (2003). "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature 423 (6491): 742–747. doi:10.1038/nature01669.
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info 11 years ago 2003(BC/AD) Peter Brown, Michael Morwood Homo floresiensis, 18,000 year old hominids from the indonesian island Flores, found. Published in 2004:
Brown, P.; Sutikna, T., Morwood, M. J., Soejono, R. P., Jatmiko, Wayhu Saptomo, E. & Rokus Awe Due (October 27, 2004). "A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia". Nature 431: 1055. doi:10.1038/nature02999
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info 11 years ago 2003(BC/AD) Mallegni F.1; Carnieri E.; Bisconti M.; Tartarelli G.; Ricci S.; Biddittu I.; Segre A. Homo cepranensis sp. nov is published for fossil found in roadcut in Italy in 1994.
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info 11 years ago 2003(BC/AD) Homo sapiens idaltu subspecies named.
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info 11 years ago 2003(BC/AD) Homo cepranensis species named.
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info 10 years ago 2004(BC/AD) Homo floresiensis species named.
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info 9 years ago 2005(BC/AD) Ze Cheng, Mario Ventura, Xinwei She, Philipp Khaitovich, Tina Graves, Kazutoyo Osoegawa, Deanna Church, Pieter DeJong, Richard K. Wilson, Svante Pääbo, Mariano Rocchi, Evan E. Eichler Chimp genome completed and compared to human.
Cheng, Z., Ventura, M., She, X., Khaitovich, P., Graves, T., Osoegawa, K., Church, D., DeJong, P., Wilson, R.K., Pääbo, S., et al. 2005. A genome-wide comparison of recent chimpanzee and human segmental duplications. Nature 437: 88-93.
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info 8 years ago 2006(BC/AD) Zeresenay Alemseged1, Fred Spoor, William H. Kimbel, René Bobe, Denis Geraads, Denné Reed, and Jonathan G. Wynn Dikika baby 'Selam' published as Lucy's baby. Not the first afarensis child, but certainly the best preserved.
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info 5 years ago 2009(BC/AD) White et. al Ardi Ardipithecus ramidus skeleton published
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info 4 years ago 2010(BC/AD) Lee R. Berger, Darryl J. de Ruiter, Steven E. Churchill, Peter Schmid, Kristian J. Carlson, Paul H. G. M. Dirks, Job M. Kibii Australopithecus sediba named
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info 4 years ago 2010(BC/AD) Australopithecus sediba species named.
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info 4 years ago 2010(BC/AD) Richard E. Green et al. A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome; Vindja cave specimen; Science 7 May 2010:\nVol. 328 no. 5979 pp. 710-722\nDOI: 10.1126/science.118802\n\n
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info 4 years ago 2010(BC/AD) Yohannes Haile-Selassie Earliest Australopithecus afarensis skeleton
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Based on a work at http://www.fossilized.org/

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Fossilized.org presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now fossilized.org has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database