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Approximate age:100,000 years old=average of minimum (0.05 Ma) and maximum (0.15 Ma)

Date based on: Guess based on dated sites that seem to have occurred in the same period of lake formation in the area. H. Gilbert reduced the upper (younger) age by another 25,000 years because the estimate was very crude, and possibly an overestimate. See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Wrinn, P. J., & Rink, W. J. (2003). ESR dating of tooth enamel from Aterian levels at Mugharet el ëAliya (Tangier, Morocco). Journal of Archaeological Science, 30(1), 123-133. , Clark, J. D. (1993). The Aterian of the central Sahara.

Hominids: Homo sapiens      

Archaeology:Middle Stone Age (MSA)/Mousterian  Late Stone Age (LSA)/Upper Paleolithic    

Important specimens: Site is more famous for Holocene cattle remains, but late MSA (Aterian industry of late MSA) also occurs in lower units. These levels indicate long distance (>250km) transport of raw materials (Clark, 1993).

Notes: "Aterian artefacts recovered from numerous ancient Saharan lake bed contexts, such as at Adrar Bous (Clark, 1993), are probably of similar age, for abundant 230Th/234U determinations (e.g., Fontes & Gasse, 1991) on desert lacustrine carbonates designate several humid episodes between 150 and 75 ka, followed by a hyperarid period in the Sahara lasting until c. 12 ka (Wendorf & Schild, 1992)." (Wrinn, et. al, 2003). Wendorf, F. & Schild, R. (1992). The Middle Paleolithic of Northeast, Africa: A status report. In (F. Klees & R. Kuper, Eds) New, Light on the Northeast African Past. Ko¨ ln: Heinrich-Barth-, Institut, pp. 39?78. Fontes, J.-Ch. & Gasse, F. (1991). PALHYDAF (Palaeohydrology of Africa) program: objectives, methods, major results. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 84, 191?215.

Location: Tenere Desert, Niger
Map location/coordinates reference: Site photos with associated coordinates: great tourist shot, another.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database