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Approximate age:440,000 years old=average of minimum (0.1 Ma) and maximum (0.78 Ma)

Date based on: nothing See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Pitsios T. 1999. Paleoanthropological research at the cave site of Apidima and the surrounding region (south Peloponnese, Greece). Anthropol Anzeiger 57:1?11.

Hominids: Homo heidelbergensis  Homo     


Important specimens: Two partial crania LAO 1/S1 and LAO 1/S2. Belong to either Homo heidelbergensis or Homo neanderthalensis.

Notes: Paleoanthropological excavations and surveys at the cave site of Apidima (South Peleponnese. Greece) during the last fifteen years brought to light paleontological findings and prehistoric artifacts, the number of which approximates 30,000 recorded and classified remains. In particular, the discovery of a significant number of human fossil bones which belong to 6-8 different individuals distinguishes Apidima as the most important paléoanthropological site in Greece. These fossil remains were found in different stratigraphic layers of the site corresponding to different phases of the human evolution during the middle and the upper Pleistocene. (Pitsios, 1999) There IS archaeology from this site, but it is not well-published, and the numerous stratigraphic levels makes difficult the extraction from the literature of the material culture associated with Apidima 1, which comes from the lower levels of the cave. The exact location of the mysterious Apidima cranium is unpublished, and the cranium itself has only recently been made avaiable to scientists. Excessive Gollum-like behavior has diminished the impact of this specimen.

Location: Mani, southern Peloponnese, Greece
Map location/coordinates reference: The location of this site is not published in detail (at least in English). The best, closest location is published in: Harvati, K., Panagopoulou, E., & Karkanas, P. (2003). First Neanderthal remains from Greece: the evidence from Lakonis. Journal of Human Evolution, 45(6), 465-473.

Key references: Harvati, K., & Delson, E. (1999). Conference Report: Paleoanthropology of the Mani Peninsula (Greece)= Rapport de confÈrence: PalÈoanthropologie de la pÈninsule de Mani (GrËce). Journal of human evolution, 36(3), 343-348. ; Pitsios, T. K. (1999). Paleoanthropological research at the cave site of Apidima and the surrounding region (South Peloponnese, Greece)= Etude palÈoanthropologique sur le site de la grotte d'Apidima et dans la rÈgion environnante (sud du PÈloponnËse, GrËce). Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 57(1), 1-11. presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database