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Approximate age:105,000 years old=average of minimum (0.01 Ma) and maximum (0.2 Ma)

Date based on: unclear based on morphology of cranium. See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Millard, A. R. (2008). A critique of the chronometric evidence for hominid fossils: I. Africa and the Near East 500-50 ka. Journal of human evolution, 54(6), 848-874.
Bräuer, G., & Leakey, R. E. (1986). The ES-11693 cranium from Eliye Springs, West Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 15(4), 289-312.
Bräuer, G. (1997). Modern human origins backdated. Nature, 386, 337-338.

Hominids: Homo rhodesiensis       


Important specimens: cranium ES11693

Notes: This date is extremely unreliable (and circular if used as a waypoint for evolutionary morphological change). It is based on the morphology of the cranium.
Millard, 2008, criticises dating as follows "Although the cranium was found out of stratigraphic context in deposits reworked by wave action, Bra?uer and Leakey (1986) considered that it probably came from deposits underlying the Holocene Galana Boi beds. They assigned a date of 200e100 ka based on cranial morphology. Bra?uer et al. (1997) plotted a most likely age of 200 ka but gave no reference for this. Only a probable pre-Holocene date can be assigned." -A.R. Millard

Location: West Turkana, Kenya, Kenya
Map location/coordinates reference: Bräuer, G., & Leakey, R. E. (1986). The ES-11693 cranium from Eliye Springs, West Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 15(4), 289-312.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database