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Approximate age:35,000 years old=average of minimum (0.03 Ma) and maximum (0.04 Ma)

Date based on: Radiocarbon See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Mussi, M. (1986). On the chronology of the burials found in the Grimaldi Caves. Antropologia Contemporanea, 9, 95-104; Mussi, M. (2001). Earliest Italy: an overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic: Kluwer Academic Pub.; Formicola, V., Pettitt, P. B., & Del Lucchese, A. (2004). A Direct AMS Radiocarbon Date on the Barma Grande 6 Upper Paleolithic Skeleton1. Current Anthropology, 45(1). ;

Hominids: Homo sapiens      

Archaeology:Late Stone Age (LSA)/Upper Paleolithic  Epipaleolithic/Mesolithic    

Important specimens: Pre-agricultre Homo sapiens

Notes: Numerous burials. Skeletons from Grimaldi were promoted as evidence for Homo sapiens existing in the earlier late Pleistocene, contemporaneous with neanderthals. It was promoted as evidence for the Pre-sapiens idea of human evolution: that neanderthals were a nonhuman lineage of primitive apelike creatures and that humanity's origins lay much deeper in the past. Grimaldi specimens were later show to be intrusive burials. In a similar way (and by many of the same people), Grimaldi specimens were argued to be an African-like pre-modern race of Europeans. This assessment was unscientific and is no longer considered valid.

Location: (Balzi Rossi: Grotta del Conte Costantini, Grotta dei Fanciulli, Grotta dei Fanciulli, Grotta di Florestano, Riparo Mochi shelter Mochi, Grotta del Caviglione, Cave of Caviglione, Barma Grande, Barma Grande, Grotta del Principe, Grotta del Principe), Liguria , Italy
Map location/coordinates reference: Coordinates exact. Monument at locality is well-known.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database