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Approximate age:43,500 years old=average of minimum (0.0422 Ma) and maximum (0.0448 Ma)

Date based on: Radiocarbon, ESR See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Higham T, et al. (2009) Problems with radiocarbon dating the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic transition in Italy. Quat Sci Rev 28:1257–1267.; Peresani M, et al. (2008) Age of the final Middle Palaeolithic and Uluzzian levels at Fumane Cave, Northern Italy, using 14C, ESR, 234U/230Th and thermoluminescence methods. J Archaeol Sci 35:2986–2996.



Important specimens: Cut marks on of use of feathers by Neanderthals. Aurignacian levels have purported earliest known cave paintings, but this are not necessarily associated with Neanderthals.

Notes: Grotte di Fumane website
No hominids known-association of bird bones with Neanderthals is stratigraphic
Cut marks on the distal end of a right ulna of Gypaetus barbatus, humerus of red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus, carpometacarpus of common wood pigeon Columba palumbus, ulna of Alpine chough Pyrrocorax graculus, carpometacarpus of Aegypius monachus

Location: Fumane Cave, Lessini Hills, north of Verona, Italy
Map location/coordinates reference: Coordinates drawn from place webpage: Fumane map page

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database