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Approximate age:830,000 years old=average of minimum (0.62 Ma) and maximum (1.04 Ma)

Date based on: U-Pb on teeth See map of sites with similar ages

Dating reference: Balter, V., Blichert-Toft, J., Braga, J., Telouk, P., Thackeray, F., & Albarède, F. (2007). U-Pb dating of fossil enamel from the Swartkrans Pleistocene hominid site, South Africa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters.



Important specimens:

Notes: Association of evidence for fire (burned bones) with hominid activity is highly controversial. For most, this equivocal evidence for early fire is merely a footnote to the more reliable evidence found at Gesher Benot Yaakov (reliably dated to about 700 ka) and Yuanmou.

Location: Swartkrans, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa
Map location/coordinates reference: Brain, C. K. (1958). The Transvaal ape-man bearing cave deposits. Transvaal Museum Memoir 11. 1967 The Transvaal Museum's fossil project at Swartkrans. South African Journal of Science, 63, 378-384.

Key references: presents precise geographic locations and current best date estimates for late Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene sites with human ancestor (hominin) fossils and archaeology. Several interactive visual interfaces allow users to generate maps and tables that relate localities, fossils, tools, and evolutioanry events with geography and time. The data content is dynamic and is updated daily, as are new interface features. This site started as a course syllabus for Anthropology 3101: Human Evolution 2 at California State University, East Bay, and grew with each quarter it was used. Now has over 200 sites and hundreds of bibliographic citations. Check back often for updates. human evolution database paleoanthropology biological anthropology database physical anthropology human origins coordinates site locations location latitude longitude age Pleistocene database Quaternary database Pliocene Holocene evolutionary history site database geochronology hominin hominidae hominid hominini acheulean oldowan middle stone age mousterian paleolithic late stone age neolithic hominin database hominin DB hominin darabase hominin dayabase hominin datavase hominid darabase hominid dayabase hominid datavase hominid database hominid fossil database human origins database hominin database hominin fossil database hominid skull human ancestor database fossil human ancestors best paleoanthropology site best paleoanthropology database best hominin database best hominid database hominin site database hominid site database coordinates map hominid site map hominin site map paleoanthropology site coordinates human evolution database human origins database fossil record database